Water Intake and Dehydration

Kidney Disease

  • In 2013 the American Journal of Nephrology published a study based on a national health survey of 3,427 adults which found that chronic kidney disease was highest among individuals with the lowest water intake. [Source]


  • In 2010 Nutrition Reviews published a review of scientific literature which found that people who consumed water, rather than sugar sweetened beverages, juice or milk with meals had significantly lower overall calorie intakes. The authors of the review note the potentially important role of water consumption in preventing obesity. [Source]
  • In 2014 the Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine published a study in which 50 overweight females drank 1.5 liters/day over and above their normal water intake, with the additional water split into three 500 ml servings taken 30 minutes before breakfast, lunch and dinner. After 8 weeks reductions were seen in body weight, BMI, body fat and appetite. [Source]

Improved mood

  • In 2014 the Public Library of Science published a study in which 22 individuals with high water intake (2.5 L/day) reduced their intake to 1 L/day and 30 participants with low water intake (1 L/day) increased their consumption to 2.5 L/day. The result was a decrease in happiness, calmness, positive emotions and vigor in the group with reduced water, while those who increased water consumption saw significant decreases in fatigue, confusion and thirst as well as lower sleepiness compared to baseline. [Source]

Headache prevention

  • In 2005 European Journal of Neurology published a 12-week study in which 18 subjects who suffered from migraines or tension headaches increased water intake by 1 liter per day. The total hours of headache in a 2-week period was reduced by 21 hours and accompanied by a reduction in headache intensity. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published a study involving 74 headache patients which found that increasing water intake improved migraine-specific quality of life in patients with chronic migraines, with 47 percent of the intervention group reporting greater than a 6 point improvement on a 10-point scale, compared to 25 percent in a control group. Drinking water did not reduce number of headache days. [Source]

Reduced calorie intake

  • In 2008 the Journal of the American Dietetic Association published a 24-subject study which found that older adults who consumed 500 mL of water 30 minutes before meals consumed 13 percent fewer calories. [Source]

Improved Cognitive function

  • In 2013 the European Journal of Nutrition published a study in which 33 individuals who completed heavy endurance exercise were evaluated on post-exercise cognitive tests. An association was seen between greater water intake (before and during the exercise period) and higher cognitive scores and improved short-term memory. [Source]
  • In 2015 Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism published a study of 63 children which found that higher water intake was related to greater ability to maintain task performance when distractions were presented. [Source]
  • In 2015 Appetite published a study in which 52 children ages 9-12 were given a standard breakfast with 200 mL water, then a baseline test, after which they were either given either 750 mL water or no water (control group) over a 2-hour period. The children who drank additional water performed better on various cognitive tasks. [Source]

Hydrogen-water – helps prevent cognitive impairment

  • In 2010 the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition published an animal study which found that mice given hydrogen-water for 30 days had reduced aged-related decline and increased brain serotonin levels and antioxidant activity, while mice in a control group given regular water saw marked loss of brain neurons associated with normal brain aging. The authors note the potential of hydrogen water for treating and preventing age-related cognitive disorders. [Source]

Removes toxins

  • In 2016 Aging and Disease published an animal study which found that in mice regular water intake helped eliminate endogenous brain formaldehyde – a contributing factor to Alzheimer’s disease. [Source]

Impaired cognitive function

  • In 2014 the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism published an animal study which found that when dehydrated, mice showed degraded blood circulation in the brain and increases in oxidative stress. The researchers noted that alterations in brain function caused by dehydration could increase susceptibility to impaired cognitive function and cerebral ischemia. [Source]

Impaired mood and concentration

  • In 2012 The Journal of Nutrition published a placebo-controlled trial in which 25 young females were assessed at different levels of hydration. The results showed that dehydration lead to lower concentration, headaches, degraded mood and increased perception of task difficulty. [Source]

Impaired physical performance

  • In 2015 Physiological Reports published a study involving 9 male cyclists which found that dehydration increased cellular and whole body stress during timed cycling bouts, which elevated core temperature and significantly reduced performance. [Source]

Impaired physical performance – Decreased bench press

  • In 2001 the Journal of Strength and Conditioning published a study which found that a 2-hour sauna session resulting in 1.5 percent loss in body mass (water weight) resulted in a lower 1-repetition max bench press. However, a 2-hour rest and re-hydration period allowed strength to return to baseline. [Source]

Dry Skin

  • In 2015 Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology published a study involving 49 women which showed that an additional 2 liters (approximately 8 cups) of water consumed daily lead to significant modifications in deep skin hydration after 30 days. [Source]


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