Type 2 Diabetes

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Reduced risk – Eating 2 meals per day

  • In 2014 Diabetologia published a 12-week, crossover study involving 54 patients with type 2 diabetes which found that eating a larger breakfast and lunch (two meals per day) reduced body weight, liver fat content, fasting blood sugar and insulin sensitivity more than eating 6 smaller meals with the same caloric content. [Source]

Resistance trainingMental Health and depression

  • In 2011 The Journals of Gerontology published a study in which 58 older adults with type 2 diabetes were either assigned to a 16 week high intensity resistance training program or a control group. Individuals in the resistance training program experienced significantly improved mental health status. [Source]

Resistance training – Diabetes Prevention

  • In 2017 the Public Library of Science published a study in which 170 overweight, prediabetic adults were enrolled in a resistance training program. After 3 months 34 percent of subjects were no longer prediabetic. Additionally, the was a correlation between greater percentage of fat lost and increased odds of maintaining normal glycemic levels. [Source]

Yoga

  • In 2005 the Nepal Medical College Journal published a study which found that 40 days of yoga practice resulted in a significant reduction in waist-to-hip ratio and improvements insulin levels and fasting blood sugar in a group of 20 type 2 diabetics. The authors of the study to concluded that yoga may be used as an adjunct therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. [Source]

Vitamin C

  • In 2011 Advances in Pharmacological Sciences published a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 70 type 2 diabetic patients in which significant improvements in glycemic control and diabetic related markers were seen when combining metformin (diabetes drug) with oral vitamin C supplementation for 12 weeks. [Source]

Vitamin C – Reduced inflammation

  • In 2015 Drug Design, Development and Therapy published a study in which 64 obese patients with diabetes and/or hypertension and high levels of inflammation were assigned to a control group or given 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. After 8 weeks key inflammatory markers were significantly reduced in the treatment group, compared to no changes in the control group. [Source]

Probiotics

  • In 2016 the International Journal of Molecular Sciences published a review of human clinical trials which found that some probiotics lead to reductions in insulin resistance and improved fasting blood glucose levels among other benefits in subjects with type 2 diabetes. [Source]

Wheatgrass

  • In 2016 Toxicology and Industrial Health published an animal study which found wheatgrass to be a potent anti-hyperglycemic agent when tested on rats with type 2 diabetes. [Source]
  • In 2013 Advances in Pharmacological Sciences published an animal study which showed that 30 days of wheatgrass administration reduced A1C, fasting blood sugar, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels while improving HDL cholesterol in diabetic-induced rats. The authors concluded that the many health promoting substances in wheatgrass support its use as an agent to prevent and treat diabetes. [Source]

Creatine

  • In 2011 Medicine and Science in Sports and Medicine published a 12-week, double-blind study in which 25 type 2 diabetic patients were assigned to either 5 grams of creatine per day or a placebo for 12-weeks while undergoing a training program. Results showed that creatine combined with exercise helped improve glycemic control. [Source]

Quercetin – Reduced blood pressure in Type 2 diabetics

  • In 2013 the International Journal of Preventive Medicine published a double-blind study in which 72 women with type 2 diabetes received either 500 mg/day quercetin or placebo daily for 10 weeks. Compared with a placebo, the quercetin group saw a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. [Source]

Coffee – Decreased risk of depression in type 2 diabetics

  • In 2014 the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition published study which found that coffee consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was an independent predictor of non-depressed status in diabetics, likely due to biological compounds in coffee other than caffeine. [Source]

Coffee – Reduced inflammation in diabetics

  • In 2006 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study based on 730 healthy women and 663 women with type 2 diabetes which showed that decaffeinated coffee reduced inflammation in healthy women while caffeinated coffee reduced inflammation markers in women with diabetes. [Source]

Ketogenic diet

  • In 2005 Nutrition and Metabolism published a 16-week study in which 21 patients adhered to a low-carb ketogenic diet with a goal of consuming less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day. Ten patients were able to discontinue their diabetes medication and 7 were able reduce medication. Average body weight decreased by 6.6 percent. The authors note that, due to its efficiency at lowering blood glucose, diabetic patients should only attempt a ketogenic diet under medical supervision. [Source]
  • In 2012 Nutrition published a 24-week study which included 360 obese participants, 102 of whom had diabetes. The researchers advised participants to choose a conventional low-carbohydrate diet or a ketogenic diet. The results showed that while both diets were effective in reducing risk factors for diabetes (cholesterol, blood glucose, body mass) the ketogenic diet showed greater benefits. [Source]
  • In 2014 the Public Library of Science published a pilot study comparing the effect of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat, non-calorie-restricted diet with a moderate carbohydrate, low-fat, calorie-restricted diet on individuals with diabetes or prediabetes. Forty-four percent of the low-carbohydrate (LC) group discontinued one or more medications compared to 11 percent in the medium carbohydrate (MC) group. The LC group lost over 12 lbs compared to just under 6 lbs for the MC group. [Source]
  • In 2008 Nutrition and Metabolism published a 24-week study in which 84 volunteers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a low-calorie ketogenic diet or a low-calorie low-glycemic-index diet. Fort-nine participants completed the study. Diabetes medication was reduced or eliminated in 95 percent of the ketogenic group and 62 percent of the low glycemic index group. The ketogenic group saw greater improvements in body weight, blood sugar and HDL cholesterol. [Source]

Breakfast

  • In 2015 Public Health Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 8 studies involving 106,935 participants which showed that skipping breakfast was associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes. [Source]

Psyllium

  • In 2015 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 35 clinical trials examining the effect of psyllium on fasting blood sugar levels. The data showed that psyllium had the greatest effect on individuals with type 2 diabetes, with a modest benefit on pre-diabetic individuals. [Source]
  • In 2002 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study which found psyllium husk to be beneficial in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics as well as lowering the risk of heart disease without affecting vitamin A and E absorption. [Source]
  • In 2005 the Journal of Ethanopharmacology published an 8-week, double-blind study which showed that 5.1 grams of psyllium taken twice daily significantly reduced the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. [Source]
  • In 2016 Nutrition Journal published a controlled study which showed that 8 weeks of 10.5 grams/day of pysllium husk was able to reduce fasting blood sugar, A1C and insulin levels and reduce body weight in 20 type 2 diabetics. [Source]

Psyllium – reduced triglycerides in type 2 diabetics

  • In 2009 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a 40-patients study which found that two months of supplementation with psyllium husk produced a significant drop in triglyceride levels of type 2 diabetic patients when compared to a controlled group. [Source]

Sitting

  • In 2016 Diabetes Care published a study which measured type 2 diabetes markers based on sitting time and break time in 24 inactive, overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. The researchers found that when the participants took breaks every 30 minutes and completed 3 minutes of light exercise or bouts of walking their diabetes markers significantly improved compared to uninterrupted sitting during an 8 hour workday. [Source]
  • In 2012 Diabetes Care published a crossover study which found that short 2-minute bouts of walking every 20 minutes decreased post meal glucose and insulin levels in 19 overweight adults when compared to uninterrupted sitting. [Source]
  • In 2010 the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a meta-analysis of 43 papers which examined the relationship between cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, all-cause mortality and occupational sitting. The evidence linking cancer and occupational sitting was limited while the majority of studies found that occupational sitting was linked to a higher risk of diabetes and mortality. [Source]

Ginseng

  • In 2016 Medicine published a meta-analysis of 8 studies for which the data showed that ginseng supplementation improved glucose control and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose intolerance. [Source]

Ginseng – Diabetes prevention

  • In 2016 the Public Library of Science published an animal study which found that black ginseng extract counteracts diabetes in mice through various mechanisms, including protecting white blood cells and reducing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and inflammation. [Source]

Ginger

  • In 2015 the Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research published a double-blind study in which 41 type 2 diabetic patients were assigned to 2 grams/day ginger powder or a placebo for 12 weeks. Results showed that ginger powder improved fasting blood sugar, A1C and other important benchmarks in diabetes when compared to baseline levels and a placebo. The authors note that ginger the reduce risk of chronic complications associated with type 2 diabetes. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine published a double-blind study in which 2 diabetes patients who did not receive insulin were assigned to either 3 grams/day powdered ginger or a placebo for 3 months. Patients who received ginger showed improved glycemic indices and antioxidant status compared to patients receiving a placebo. [Source]

Royal jelly

  • In 2015 the Iranian Journal of Public Health published a clinical trail in which patients with type 2 diabetes were given 1 gram of royal jelly or a placebo 3 times daily for 8 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, the royal jelly group saw a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and a reduction in insulin resistance. [Source]
  • In 2012 Health Promotion Perspectives published a clinical trial in which 50 female volunteers with type 2 diabetes were given either 1 gram of royal jelly or a placebo each day for 8 weeks. The royal jelly group consumed fewer calories and carbohydrates and lost weight while the placebo group did not. [Source]

Blueberries – Reduced risk of diabetes

  • In 2013 BMJ published a study based on data from based on previously conducted large-scale survey-based studies. The results showed an association between whole fruit consumption (particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples) and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. [Source]
  • In 2012 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study based on data from based on previously conducted large-scale survey-based studies which showed that a higher consumption of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich fruit was associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. [Source]

Apple cider vinegar

  • In 2008 the Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences published an animal study in which both normal rats and rats induced with diabetes were given apple cider vinegar for 4 weeks. Reductions in LDL cholesterol levels and triglycerides and increases in HDL cholesterol were observed in both normal and diabetic rats. [Source]

Eggs – No increased cholesterol risk for diabetics

  • In 2015 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a 3-month study in which 140 obese participants with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were assigned to either a high-egg or low-egg diet where they consumed either 2 eggs per day, 6 days out of the week (12 eggs total per week) or less than 2 eggs per week. At the end of the study there were no differences in cholesterol profiles between the groups, however the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety, post-breakfast. [Source]

Turmeric

  • In 2014 The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry published a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which showed that 6 months of curcumin supplementation in type 2 diabetics, lowered the risks of atherosclerosis. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry published a 4-week study which compared 2 grams/day turmeric combined with standard metformin treatment with metformin alone on 60 diabetic patients. The researchers found that turmeric as an adjunct treatment significantly reduced fasting glucose levels, improved cholesterol and reduced inflammation and damaging free radicals. [Source]

Red wine

  • In 2006 Diabetic Medicine published a study in which 115 diabetes patients who had sustained a heart attack consumed either red wine or no red wine (control group) for one year. The subjects who consumed red wine had significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory markers compared to those who did not consume red wine. The authors of the study note that red wine intake with meals may help prevent cardiovascular complications in diabetics after myocardial infarction (heart attack). [Source]

Low Carbohydrate Diet

  • In 2012 Diabetologia published a study comparing a low-fat diet to a low-carb diet for 2 years in 61 adults with type 2 diabetes. While weight lost was not significant between the two groups, insulin doses were significantly reduced in the low-carb group after 6 months.

Trans Fat

  • In 2006 Atherosclerosis. Supplements published a review which noted that trans fat consumption is a predictor of coronary heart disease, diabetes and sudden death. The authors also state that the systematic inflammation caused by trans fatty acids may be involved in endothelial cell dysfunction – a major factor in the onset of atherosclerosis. [Source]

Soybean oil

  • In 2015 the Public Library of Science published an animal study which found that a diet high in soybean oil triggered the activation of genes involved in obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer in mice. Additionally, authors of the study noted that a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose. [Source]

Carrageenan

  • In 2012 Diabetologia published an animal study which found that mice given carrageenan in their drinking water had impaired glucose tolerance and increased insulin resistance which may contribute to the development of diabetes. [Source]

Stretching

  • In 2012 Diabetologia published an animal study which found that mice given carrageenan in their drinking water had impaired glucose tolerance and increased insulin resistance which may contribute to the development of diabetes. [Source]

Honey – Improved cholesterol in diabetics

  • In 2009 the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition published an 8-week study involving 48 diabetic patients which found that, compared to a control group, those who received honey had reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and increases in HDL cholesterol. There was also an increase seen in hemoglobin A1C levels (blood sugar marker), promoting researchers to promote cautious consumption of honey for diabetics. [Source]
  • In 2004 the Journal of Medicinal Food published a study which showed that, compared to sugar, honey lowered C-reactive protein (inflammatory marker), homocysteine (cardiovascular risk factor) and blood lipids in healthy subjects as well as subjects with elevated lipid levels and subjects with diabetes. [Source]

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