Premature grey hair

  • In 2013 Indian Dermatology Online Journal published an associative study based on 207 participants which found that smokers were two and a half times more likely to develop premature gray hair (before the age of 30) compared to non smokers. [Source]

Red Wine

  • In 2004 American Heart Journal published a crossover study in which 16 healthy volunteers smoked a cigarette, or smoked a cigarette with a glass of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine. The data showed that endothelial function was significantly impaired immediately following smoking a cigarette alone, but when smoking a was combined with red wine or de-alcoholized red wine endothelial function was not affected. [Source]
  • In 2006 the Journal of Hypertension published a double-blind, crossover study in which 20 smokers smoked either a cigarette alone or combined with red wine or de-alcoholized red wine. Smoking alone increased systolic blood pressure while smoking along with drinking either red wine or de-alcoholized did not change blood pressure. Red wine also reduced arterial stiffness more than de-alcoholized red wine. [Source]
  • In 2017 The American Journal of Medicine published a study in which participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking red wine. After smoking alone inflammation markers and immune response increased whereas red wine completely mitigated the endothelial damage, inflammation and cellular aging caused by smoking. [Source]
  • In 2007 the Journal of the American College of Nutrition published a double-blind, crossover study in which 12 volunteers smoked one cigarette alone or combined with 250mL (one cup) of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine. While smoking one cigarette alone significantly decreased FMD (Flow mediated dilatation – a measure to assess endothelial cell function) both red wine and de-alcoholized red wine counteracted these effects and FMD remained unchanged when wine was consumed while smoking. [Source]

Diverticular disease

  • In 2010 the Scandinavian Journal of Surgery published a retrospective study of 261 patients which found that compared to non-smokers who were operated on for diverticular disease, smokers who underwent the same operation had increased likelihood of complications as well as more rapid development of complications. [Source]

Parental smoking increases adolescent smoking

  • In 2009 Pediatrics published a study based on 564 adolescents aged 12-17 which found that parental smoking was associated with a significantly higher risk for adolescent offspring becoming smokers. However, offspring of parents who had quit smoking were no more likely to smoke than offspring of parents who never smoked. [Source]


  • In 2006 Mayo Clinic Proceedings published a meta-analysis of 22 studies which found that smoking had a positive correlation with both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. [Source]


  • In 2008 The British Journal of Psychiatry published a study which found that among 165 smokers and 806 non-smokers, smoking was associated with a 46 percent increased incidence of major depressive disorder. Additionally, heavy smokers (greater than 20 cigarettes per day) had more than twice the odds of developing major depressive disorder compared to non smokers. [Source]

Highest risk cancers

  • In 2008 the International Journal of Cancer published a meta-analysis of 216 studies which found that smoking increased the risk of lung cancer by nearly 9 times, laryngeal cancer by almost 7 times, pharyngeal cancer by 6.76 times, upper digestive tract cancer by 3.57 times and oral cancer by 3.43 times. [Source]

Lung cancer in men and women

  • In 2008 The Lancet Oncology published a study based on results from a large cohort study involving 463,837 participants. The results showed that while smoking was strongly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men and women the differences in cancer rates between sexes were modest, with men having a marginally higher risk. [Source]
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