Resistance Training

Rest intervals – Testosterone and Growth Hormone

  • In 2010 the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research published a study in which different rest intervals between weight training sets were evaluated for effects on serum testosterone and growth hormone levels in 10 resistance-trained men. Immediately post training, 60-second rest intervals increased growth hormone significantly more, while 120-second intervals resulted in significantly higher increases in testosterone. [Source]

Video Clips before training

  • In 2012 Hormones and Behavior published a study in which 12 male athletes watched 4 minute video clips of either sad, training-motivational, humorous, erotic, aggressive or neutral content before performing 3 repetition maximum (3RM) lifts. The erotic, humorous, motivational and aggressive clips increased testosterone significantly (compared to the neutral clip) while the sad clip decreased testosterone significantly. Additionally, the erotic, aggressive and training clips improved 3RM performance. [Source]

Back Pain, arthritis and Fibromyalgia

  • In 2012 Current Sports Medicine Reports published a review which noted that in inactive adults 10 weeks of resistance training may increase lean mass by 3 lbs, increase metabolism by 7 percent and reduce body fat by 4 lbs while improving physical performance, functional independence, cognitive abilities and self-esteem. Additional benefits noted include reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, improved blood lipids, reduced blood pressure, increased bone density and reduced discomfort associated with fibromyalgia and arthritis. [Source]

Number of sets and contraction speed

  • In 2005 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise published a study which found that in 115 untrained subjects who completed 6 weeks of training 3 times per week, training with 3 sets produced twice the increase of strength compared to one set. Faster contractions also were more effective for increasing strength compared to slower contractions. There was no additional benefits seen combining 3 sets with fast contractions. [Source]

Increased capillarization

  • In 2016 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise published a study which found that, in a group of 16 older men, 12 weeks of resistance exercise effectively increased muscle capillarization – the development of capillaries in the muscle tissue which play a key role in oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscle. [Source]

Cerebral palsy

  • In 2003 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology published a study involving 21 young individuals with cerebral palsy which found that a 6-week strength training program lead to lasting changes in lower limb strength and improvements in standing, running, jumping, and stair climbing. [Source]

Abdominal Obesity

  • In 2015 the International Journal of Obesity published a study in which overweight 304 adolescents were assigned to either aerobic training, resistance training, combined training (resistance + aerobic) or a control group for 5 months. Each of the training protocols reduced abdominal fat, with combination training leading to the greatest improvements in cardiovascular health predictors. [Source]

NAFLD (Non Alcoholic fatty liver disease)

  • In 2014 the World Journal of Gastroenterology published a study of 64 patients which found that 3 months of strength training improved hepatic fat content (liver fat) compared to a control group. [Source]

Diabetes Prevention

  • In 2017 the Public Library of Science published a study in which 170 overweight, prediabetic adults were enrolled in a resistance training program. After 3 months 34 percent of subjects were no longer prediabetic. Additionally, the was a correlation between greater percentage of fat lost and increased odds of maintaining normal glycemic levels. [Source]

Reduced metabolic risk, inflammation and belly fat in postmenopausal women

  • In 2016 Age published a study in which 32 postmenopausal women were either assigned to a control group or performed eight exercises 3 times per week for 16 weeks at either a high volume of 6 sets per exercise or a low volume of 3 sets per exercise. The results showed that while low volume improved HbA1C, body fat percentage and muscular strength, only high volume training improved belly fat and fat metabolism and prevented increases in one inflammatory marker. [Source]

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

  • In 2012 Respiratory Medicine published a study of 36 patients which found that both strength training alone and combined with endurance training improved exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with COPD. [Source]

Increased bone density

  • In 2015 Bone published a study of 38 men with osteopenia (lower than normal bone mineral density) which found that both resistance training and jump training significantly increased whole body and hip bone density after 6 months, with the increase maintained after 12 months. [Source]

Increased bone density in patients with osteoporosis

  • In 2014 the Journal of Family & Community Medicine published a study in which 40 patients with osteoporosis were assigned to either weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing exercises twice per week for 6 months. While both groups experienced significant improvements in quality of life, the weight-bearing group saw greater improvements in bone mineral density. [Source]

Preservation of Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

  • In 2015 Osteoporosis International published a meta-analysis of 24 clinical trials which showed that, among postmenopausal women, resistance programs that combined resistance training with high-impact or weight-bearing exercise were effective in preserving femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density, whereas resistance-alone protocols only produced non-significant positive effects. [Source]


  • In 2010 Clinical Geriatric Medicine published a meta-analysis of 8 clinical trials which found that strength training has particularly strong functional benefits for older adults with osteoarthritis. [Source]


  • In 2005 The Journals of Gerontology published a study in which 60 adults over the age of 60 with major or minor depression were assigned to either high or low intensity progressive resistance training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. A 50 percent reduction in depression scores were achieved in 61 percent of the high intensity and 29 percent of the low intensity groups. Additionally, strength gains were directly correlated with reduced depressive symptoms. [Source]
  • In 2011 the Journal of Strength and Conditioning published a study in which 55 middle-aged individuals with either a high or low number of cardiovascular risk factors were assigned to a control group or underwent resistance training 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The results showed that low-moderate and moderate-high intensity resistance exercise significantly improved depressed mood in individuals with a high number of metabolic risk factors. Increases in muscle strength were directly correlated with improved depression scores. [Source]

Mental Health and depression – Type 2 diabetics

  • In 2011 The Journals of Gerontology published a study in which 58 older adults with type 2 diabetes were either assigned to a 16 week high intensity resistance training program or a control group. Individuals in the resistance training program experienced significantly improved mental health status. [Source]

Metabolic Syndrome

  • In 2010 Sport Medicine published a meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials which found that resistance training improved variables in metabolic syndrome including reduced fat mass, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c. [Source]

Prevents gains in fat mass during weight re-gain after dieting

  • In 2010 the Journal of Clinical Hypertension published a study involving 9 individuals who lost 4 to 6 percent of their body weight during an 8 to 12 week diet and aerobic exercise program. The weight loss phase was followed by a resistance training program which was effective in increasing strength and maintaining body fat percentage, waist circumference and improvements in metabolic health during weight regain of approximately 50 percent of weight lost. [Source]


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