Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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Dry eyes

  • In 2013 the International Journal of Ophthalmology published a double-blind clinical trial involving 518 subjects which found that 500 mg omega-3 capsules taken twice daily was significantly more effective than a placebo for treating dry eye. The greatest benefit was seen in patients with blepharitis and  meibomian gland disease. [Source]
  • In 2013 Ophthalmology published a double-blind study in which 64 patients with dry eye received either a placebo or 2 capsules of omega-3, each containing 180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA daily for 30 days. Compared to the placebo group, the omega-3 group had increased tear secretion, reduced dry eye and a lower rate of tear evaporation. [Source]
  • In 2014 Medical Science Monitor published a meta-analysis of 7 trials published between 2007 and 2013 which included a total of 790 participants. The combined data showed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is an effective therapy for dry eye syndrome. [Source]
  • In 2016 Cornea published a double-blind, 150-patient study in which 12 weeks of daily omega-3 supplementation consisting of 4 softgels containing 680 mg of EPA and 560 million mg of DHA improved various indicators of dry eye when compared to a control group. [Source]
  • In 2008 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society published a 1-year, placebo-controlled trial in which patients with blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction saw improvements in ocular surface disease score after supplementing 2000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids 3 times daily. [Source]

Computer screen related dry-eye

  • In 2015 Contact Lens & Anterior Eye published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 478 subjects in which individuals saw significant improvements in computer-vision-syndrome-related dry eye after 3 months of daily supplementation with 2 capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA. [Source]

Dry eyes for contact lens wearers

  • In 2015 Cornea published a double-blind study in which 496 contact lens wearers with dry eye received either a placebo or omega-3 fatty acid capsules twice daily for 6 months. The omega-3 group experienced significantly near greater reductions in dry eye symptoms as well as improved contact lens comfort compared to the placebo group. [Source]

Dry eyes associated with anti-glaucoma eye drops

  • In 2016 Clinical Ophthalmology published an open-label study in which 1255 patients with dry eye symptoms related to anti-glaucoma topical medication were treated with 12 weeks of supplementation with an omega-3 fatty acid/antioxidant combination supplement (Brudypio). Significant improvement was seen in compliant patients. [Source]

Hypertension – Diets Low in Omega Fatty Acids

  • In 2008 Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids published an animal study which found that rats fed a diet deficient in essential omega-3 fatty acids were significantly more hypertensive that rats fed a diet sufficient in omega-3 fats. [Source]

Hypertension

  • In 2009 the Journal of Hypertension published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 74 subjects which found that 4 grams omega-3 fatty acids daily for 8 weeks reduced heart rate, blood pressure and triglycerides in patients with chronic kidney disease – a condition associated with increased cardiovascular risk. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice published a double-blind clinical trial in which 90 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were assigned to either 3 grams/day omega-3 or a placebo for 8 weeks. Patients in the omega-3 group saw a significant reduction in blood pressure but no change in blood lipid profile. [Source]
  • In 2001 the European Heart Journal published a double-blind study based on 45 heart transplant patients which found that, compared to a placebo, omega-3 fats were able to prevent rises in blood pressure that often occur after heart surgery. The authors credit EPA and DHA – two types of omega-3 fats – for the anti-hypertensive effect. [Source]
  • In 2014 the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology published an animal study analyzing the effects of omega-3 components on blood pressure. The authors concluded that one component in particular, DHA is most responsible for the blood-pressure-lowering effects of omega-3 fatty acids. [Source]
  • In 2013 the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology published a meta-analysis which analyzed data from 17 studies and 1524 participants. The authors concluded that fish oil supplements have a small but statistically significant effect in lowering blood pressure. [Source]

Depression

  • In 2009 CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics published a review of 3 studies involving a total of 60 patients which tested the effects of Omega-3 fatty acids on individuals with depression. In all 3 studies Omega-3 fatty acids were more effective than a placebo in treating depression in both adults and children. [Source]
  • In 2014 the Public Library of Science published a meta-analysis of 19 studies which found omega-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to be effective in treating both patients with MDD (major depressive disorder) and patients with symptoms of depression but no diagnosis of MDD. [Source]
  • In 2014 the American Journal of Theraputics published a study in which 40 dialysis patients with depression were given either 6 soft-gels totaling 1080 mg EPA and 720 mg DHA or a placebo daily for 4 months. The results showed health-related quality of life and depression scores improved significantly in the Omega-3 group compared to the placebo group. [Source]
  • In 2007 The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 10 studies involving patients with mood disorders receiving omega-3 fatty acids for 4 weeks or longer. The data showed significant improvement in patients with clearly defined depression or bipolar disorder. [Source]
  • In 2012 The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 5 studies involving 291 subjects which found omega-3 supplementation to have a moderate effect on bipoloar depression. [Source]
  • In 2008 the Indian Journal of Psychiatry published a review which noted that the most common nutritional deficiencies in patients with mental disorders include omega 3 fatty acids, B vitamins, minerals and amino acids. [Source]

Psoriasis

  • In 2002 the British Journal of Nutrition published a study in which psoriasis patients saw greater symptom improvement when treated intravenously with omega-3 fatty acids when compared to an omega-6-based treatment. [Source]

ADHD – Omega 3 and Omega 6

  • In 2010 Lipids in Health and Disease published an observational study in which 810 children with ADHD, ages 5-12  were given a supplement containing omega-3, omega-6. magnesium and zinc for 12 weeks. Results showed that most subjects showed considerable improvements in ADHD symptoms. [Source]

ADHD

  • In 2009 Pediatrics and Child Health published a double-blind study in which 26 children were given either an omega-3 or an omega-6 supplement for 16 weeks. Children from the omega-3 group saw greater symptom improvement, with 8 children from the omega-3 group achieving and maintaining symptom control, particularly related to inattention. [Source]
  • In 2011 the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 10 clinical trials involving 699 students. The combined data showed that Omega-3 fatty acids had a small but significant effect in improving ADHD symptoms. [Source]
  • In 2015 Neuropsychopharmacology published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 40 boys with ADHD and 39 boys without ADHD. Compared to a control group boys who consumed 10 grams/day margarine enriched with 650 mg of DHA and EPA (omega-3) for 16 weeks saw improvements in ADHD symptoms – the effect was the strongest in developing children. [Source]
  • In 2016 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment published a meta-analysis based on 25 ADHD studies published between 2000 and 2015. The data showed overall positive results using Omega-3 fatty acids to treat ADHD with mild side effects and the potential to reduce stimulant dosage when used in combination. [Source]

ADHD – Omega-3 deficiencies

  • In 2014 Clinical Psychology Review published a meta-analysis which found that, in 9 studies, totaling 586 participants, omega-3 blood levels were lower in children with ADHD compared to controls. Part-two of the review found that, in 16 studies, totaling 1408 children, omega-3 supplementation improved ADHD symptoms. [Source]

ADHD – Omega 3 and zinc

  • In 2016 the Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice published a double-blind trial on 150 children with ADHD, comparing zinc, omega-3 and a placebo. The results showed that both zinc and omega-3 supplementation, when taken in combination with methylphenidate (ADHD drug), were more effective in improving symptoms than drug treatment alone (placebo group). [Source]

Dry skin

  • In 2015 the Journal of Dermatological Science published a controlled animal study which showed that rats treated with fish oil supplements for 90 days exhibited increased skin hydration and elimination of itching and dry skin. [Source]

Eye strain-related fatigue – Omega 3s and bilberry extract, and lutein

  • In 2011 Biomedical Research published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 4 weeks of treatment with a supplement containing fish oil, bilberry extract and lutein improved asthenopia (eye strain) and associated mental fatigue in 11 individuals when compared to a placebo group. [Source]

Macular Degeneration

  • In 2005 Opthalmologica published a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 106 patients which found that CoQ10, along with acetyl-L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids were effective in treating early-stage macular degeneration. [Source]

Organic meats – Improved fatty acid profile

  • In 2015 Meat Science published a study which found that summer-finished organic meats had higher concentrations of the healthy fat CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) aw well as a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. [Source]

Organic milk

  • In 2013 the Public Library of Science published the first large-scale U.S. nationwide study comparing the fatty acid profiles of organic and conventional milk. The data showed that over 12 months organic milk contained 25 percent less omega-6 fatty acids and 62 percent more omega-3 fatty acids than conventional milk – providing a more optimal omega-3/omega-6 balance. [Source]
  • In 2006 the Journal of Dairy Science published a 12-month study in which milk samples were collected from dairy farms in the U.K. The data showed that the organic milk had higher portions of omega-3 fatty acids and lower portions of omega-6 fatty acids throughout the year. [Source]

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