Hypertension

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Macular Degeneration

  • In 2000 Archives of Ophthalmology published a study involving 644 subjects which found that age-related macular degeneration was associated with hypertension and may have similar underlying causes. [Source]
  • In 2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science published a population-based study based on 963 subjects over the age of 73 which found that high blood pressure was significantly associated with an increased risk for age-related macular degeneration. [Source]
  • In 2008 the American Journal of Ophthalmology published a study based on retinal photographs from 5,875 participants which found that cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure play a role in advanced age-related macular degeneration. [Source]

Stress

  • In 2009 Cadernos De Saude Publica published a meta-analysis based on 6 studies totaling 34,556 subjects. The results showed that individuals who had strong responses to stressors were 21 percent more likely to develop blood pressure increases. [Source]

Diets Low in Omega Fatty Acids

  • In 2008 Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids published an animal study which found that rats fed a diet deficient in essential omega-3 fatty acids were significantly more hypertensive that rats fed a diet sufficient in omega-3 fats. [Source]

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • In 2009 the Journal of Hypertension published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 74 subjects which found that 4 grams omega-3 fatty acids daily for 8 weeks reduced heart rate, blood pressure and triglycerides in patients with chronic kidney disease – a condition associated with increased cardiovascular risk. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice published a double-blind clinical trial in which 90 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were assigned to either 3 grams/day omega-3 or a placebo for 8 weeks. Patients in the omega-3 group saw a significant reduction in blood pressure but no change in blood lipid profile. [Source]
  • In 2001 the European Heart Journal published a double-blind study based on 45 heart transplant patients which found that, compared to a placebo, omega-3 fats were able to prevent rises in blood pressure that often occur after heart surgery. The authors credit EPA and DHA – two types of omega-3 fats – for the anti-hypertensive effect. [Source]
  • In 2014 the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology published an animal study analyzing the effects of omega-3 components on blood pressure. The authors concluded that one component in particular, DHA is most responsible for the blood-pressure-lowering effects of omega-3 fatty acids. [Source]
  • In 2013 the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology published a meta-analysis which analyzed data from 17 studies and 1524 participants. The authors concluded that fish oil supplements have a small but statistically significant effect in lowering blood pressure. [Source]

Meditation

  • In 2007 Current Hypertension Reports published a meta-analysis based on 17 trials and 960 participants with elevated blood pressure which measured the effect of stress reduction on blood pressure. The authors concluded that transcendental meditation is associated with significant reductions in blood pressure. [Source]
  • In 2013 Pyschosomatic Medicine published an 8-week study involving 56 prehypertensive men and women which found that 2.5 hours mindfulness-based stress reduction (meditation) per week was effective in reducing blood pressure. [Source]

Psyllium

  • In 2007 Clinical and Experimental Hypertension published a 6-month, open-label, clinical trial involving 141 hypertensive, overweight patients which found that 3.5 grams of psyllium powder taken 20 minutes before the 2 main daily meals resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides, blood pressure and body mass index. [Source]

Oats

  • In 2002 The Journal of Family Practice published a study involving 18 men and women which found that oats added to the diet of hypertensive patients resulted in significant drop in blood pressure as well as a 14 percent decrease in LDL (bad) cholesterol. [Source]

Beta-Glucan

  • In 2016 Food & Nutrition Research published an animal study which found that beta-glucan was able to reduce blood pressure as well as triglycerides and cholesterol in rats after 10 weeks. [Source]

Whole Grains

  • In 2009 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study which followed 51,529 males heath professionals between the ages of 40-75 for 18 years. The data showed an inverse relationship between whole grain intake and hypertension. [Source]
  • In 2006 the Journal of the American Dietetic Association published a 5-week study which found that whole grain foods high in soluble or insoluble fiber were effective in reducing blood pressure in 25 subjects. [Source]
  • In 2002 The Journal of Family Practice published a 12-week study which compared 2 whole grain, oat-based cereals with 2 refined-grain, wheat-based cereals in 88 hypertensive subjects. Results showed that the group consuming whole grains saw a significant reduction in blood pressure which reduced the need for anti-hypertensive blood pressure medication. [Source]

Olive Oil and the Mediterranean Diet

  • In 2004 Clinical Nutrition published a crossover study in which 31 hypertensive and 31 normotensive elderly volunteers consumed diets enriched in virgin olive oil or sunflower oil for 4 weeks each. Results showed that virgin olive oil was helpful in reducing hypertension in elderly subjects but not cholesterol. [Source]
  • In 2012 the American Journal of Hypertension published a 24-subject, double-blind, crossover study which found that 8 weeks of a diet enriched with polyphenol-rich olive oil reduced blood pressure and improved endothelial function in women with early stage hypertension. [Source]

Exercise

  • In 2013 the American Journal of Hypertension published a study involving 207 sedentary subjects with stage 1 or 2 hypertension which found that significant reductions in blood pressure were achieved with a modest 8-week exercise program consisting of both 30-60 min/week and 61-90 minutes per week –  though results were grater in the 61-90 min group. [Source]

Vitamin E

  • In 2002 The International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research published a 70-patient, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trail which found that 200 IU vitamin E supplementation/day for 27 weeks was able to produce a remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure in mild hypertensive subjects. [Source]

Flaxseed

  • In 2014 Hypertension published a 110-participant, double-blind, clinical trial which evaluated the effects of 30 grams/day flaxseed for 6 months on subjects with peripheral artery disease – a narrowing of the arteries due to plaque buildup, which causes hypertension. Compared to a placebo group, those consuming flaxseed saw a significant drop in systolic blood pressure. [Source]

Chia Flour

  • In 2014 Plant Food for Human Nutrition published a study involving 26 patients which found that 35 grams of chia flour per day for 12 weeks was able to reduce blood pressure in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. [Source]

Quercetin

  • In 2007 The Journal of Nutrition published a double-blind, crossover study in which 41 prehypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive participants received either a placebo or 730 mg of quercetin per day for 28 days. Quercetin produced a modest reduction in blood pressure in stage 1 hypertension individuals. [Source]

Garlic

  • In 2013 the Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published a 24-week study which compared 5 different daily doses (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 mg) of garlic with both a placebo and atenolol (blood pressure reducing drug) for reducing blood pressure in 210 hypertensive subjects. Blood pressure readings taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks showed that garlic reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a dose and duration-dependent manner compared to both a placebo and atenolol. [Source]
  • In 2016 the Journal of Nutrition published a meta-analysis which included 20 studies and 970 participants on the effects of garlic on blood pressure. The authors of the review concluded that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate elevated cholesterol levels and stimulate the immune system. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Clinical Hypertension published a meta-analysis which included 17 trials from 1946 – 2013. Based on the data the authors concluded that garlic supplements are effective in reducing blood pressure, particularly in hypertensive individuals. [Source]
  • In 2008 The Annals of Pharmacotherapy published a meta-analysis which analysed 10 studies. The authors concluded that garlic is associated with blood pressure reductions in hypertensive individuals but not in subjects with normal blood pressure. [Source]
  • In 2013 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a 12-week, double-blind clinical trial in which 79 subjects with hypertension were assigned to 1 of 3 daily doses of garlic or a placebo. Results showed that after 12 weeks 480 mg/day of aged garlic extract produced a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure when compared to a placebo. [Source]
  • In 2015 Phytomedicine published a meta-analysis of 7 placebo-controlled studies which revealed garlic to possess a significant blood pressure lowering effect on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, leading the authors to conclude that garlic is a safe and effective treatment for hypertension. [Source]
  • In 2016 Integrated Blood Pressure Control published an 88-subject, double-blind clinical trial which found that 12 weeks of supplementation with aged garlic extract was able to reduce blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension when compared to a placebo. The authors also concluded that garlic extract has the potential to improve arterial stiffness and inflammation. [Source]
  • In 2005 Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry published a study in which 20 patients with hypertension and 20 individuals with normal blood pressure were given 250 mg of garlic per day for 2 months. The hypertensive group saw a moderate decrease in blood pressure and significant increase in vitamin levels and antioxidant status. There was also a significant reduction in  8-OHdG levels – a marker of oxidative stress and DNA damage. [Source]

CoQ10

  • In 2014 the Iranian Red Cresent Medical Journal published a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 52 patients with hyperlipidemia and myocardial infarction. Results showed 12 weeks of supplementation with 200 mg/day of CoQ10 reduced blood pressure and lowered cholesterol significantly more than a placebo. [Source]
  • In 2002 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a double-blind study in which 74 type 2 diabetic patients with elevated cholesterol were assigned to either 200 mg per day CoQ10, fenofibrate (cholesterol-lowering drug), both or neither for 12 weeks. Results showed CoQ10 reduced both blood pressure and long-term glycemic control while fenofibrate did not alter blood pressure at all. [Source]
  • In 2001 Southern Medical Journal published a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 83 subjects which showed that 60 mg of CoQ10 taken twice daily lead to a significant drop in average systolic blood pressure. [Source]
  • In 2015 the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness published a 32-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial which found that 600 mg daily of CoQ10 supplemented for 11 days (starting 7 days prior to camp) resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure in young athletes during a 4-day training camp. [Source]
  • In 2007 the Journal of Human Hypertension published a meta-analysis of 12 clinical trials which showed that, in hypertensive individuals, CoQ10 has the potential to reduce systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects. [Source]

Sea buckthorn oil

  • In 2017 Clinical Nutrition published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 105 subjects which found that seabuckthorn oil markedly reduced cholesterol, oxidized LDL (inflammatory LDL cholesterol) and triglycerides in subjects with high cholesterol, while also improving antioxidant status. [Source]

Green coffee

  • In 2006 Clinical and Experimental Hypertension published a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 28 individuals which found that, compared to a placebo, 140 mg/day chlorogenic acid significantly reduced blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. [Source]
  • In 2002 Hypertension Research published an animal study which found that green coffee extract reduced blood pressure in hypertensive rats. [Source]

Acupuncture

  • In 2007 Neurological Research published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 32 hypertensive or pre-hypertensive individuals received either real or sham acupuncture for 8 weeks. The group that received true acupuncture saw a significant reduction in blood pressure while the sham group did not. [Source]

Aromatherapy

  • In 2006 Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi published a study of 52 subjects which showed that essential oils once used daily for 4 weeks were more effective than a placebo in reducing psychological stress, stress hormone levels (cortisol) and blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. [Source]

Astaxanthin

  • In 2005 Biological and Pharmceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found that hypertensive mice treated with astaxanthin for 14 days had a significant reduction in blood pressure. [Source]
  • In 2005 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found astaxanthin supplementation provided protection against stroke, hypertension and dementia, as well as improvements in water maze test performance and memory in rats. [Source]

Bacopa

  • In 2011 the Journal of Ethnopharmacology published an animal study which showed that Bacopa monnieri was able to reduce blood pressure in rats by dilating blood vessels though the release of nitric oxide. [Source]

Hypertension linked to Psoriosis

  • In 2010 Acta Dermato-venereologica published a case-control study based on 12,502 psoriasis patients and 24,285 controls which found a significant association between hypertension and psoriasis. The authors of the study recommend that patients with psoriasis be routinely screened for hypertension. [Source]

Massage

  • In 2014 the Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing published a meta-analysis of 9 clinical trials which found that massage lowered both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension and prehypertension compared to controls. [Source]

Red winesmokers

  • In 2006 the Journal of Hypertension published a double-blind, crossover study in which 20 smokers smoked either a cigarette alone or combined with red wine or de-alcoholized red wine. Smoking alone increased systolic blood pressure while smoking along with drinking either red wine or de-alcoholized did not change blood pressure. Red wine also reduced arterial stiffness more than de-alcoholized red wine. [Source]
  • In 2002 the Journal of Studies on Alcohol published a placebo-controlled, crossover study which found that 13 centrally (waistline) obese, middle-aged individuals saw a significant reduction in blood pressure after consuming 250 mL (1 cup) of red win with a daytime meal. [Source]

Chlorella

  • In 2002 the Journal of Medicinal Food published a pilot study in which 24 subjects with mild to moderate hypertension were taken off all hypertensive medications and assigned to 10 grams/day chlorella tablets and 100 ml/day chlorella extract. After 2 months some subjects had stabilization or reductions in diastolic blood pressure. [Source]
  • In 2001 Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine published a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 55 individuals with fibromyalgia, 33 with hypertension and 9 with ulcerative colitis. Results showed that 10 grams of pure chlorella in tablet form and 100 mL of a liquid chlorella extract taken daily for 2 or 3 months improved quality of life in participants through reducing pain, blood pressure and cholesterol and enhancing immune function. [Source]

Chlorella – fibromyaglia-associated hypertension

  • In 2001 Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine published a double-blind clinical trial in which 55 patients with fibromyalgia, 33 with hypertension and 9 with ulcerative colitis (UC) consumed 10 grams chlorella tablets and 100 mL liquid chlorella daily for 2-3 months. Results showed that chlorella supplementation improved quality of life, blood pressure and UC symptoms for individuals with fibromyalgia, hypertension and ulcerative colitis, respectively. [Source]

Blueberries

  • In 2015 the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics published an 8-week, double-blind study in which 48 women with high blood pressure received either 22 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder or 22 grams of a placebo powder. The blueberry group exhibited a significant reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness while no change was seen in the placebo group. [Source]

Berries

  • In 2016 Scientific Reports published a meta-analysis including 22 randomized controlled trials totaling 1,251 subjects which showed that berry consumption significantly lowered LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, body mass index, A1C and tumor necrosis factor-α (a major pro-inflammatory cytokine). [Source]

MSG

  • In 2011 the Journal of Hypertension published a study based on data from a nutrition study involving 1227 Chinese adults. The data showed an association between MSG intake and increased blood pressure. [Source]

Pea Protein

  • In 2011 the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published a 3-week, double-blind study of 7 volunteers which showed that pea protein reduced systolic blood pressure when compared to a placebo. Additionally, an 8-week animal trial showed that pea protein reduced blood pressure in rats with chronic kidney disease. [Source]

Resistance training

  • In 2010 Sport Medicine published a meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials which found that resistance training improved variables in metabolic syndrome including reduced fat mass, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c. [Source]

Energy drinks

  • In 2014 the European Journal of Nutrition published crossover study in which 25 healthy young males consumed a Red Bull on one occasion and a placebo drink on a second occasion. The results showed that, compared to the placebo, ingestion of the Red Bull had an overall negative effect with relation to blood flow – subjects showed increased blood pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow velocity (the rate at which blood is flowing in the brain). [Source]

Ketogenic diets

  • In 2013 The British Journal of Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 13 studies which found that ketogenic diets produced greater long-term weight loss than low-fat diets, while also reducing blood pressure, insulin levels and C-reactive proteins – a measure of inflammation in the body. [Source]

Extra virgin olive oil

  • In 2004 Clinical Nutrition published a study which found that 4-weeks of a diet enriched with virgin olive oil was helpful in reducing systolic blood pressure in 31 elderly subjects with hypertension. [Source]
  • In 2012 the American Journal of Hypertension published a double-blind, crossover study which found that 24 young women with early-stage hypertension had reduced blood pressure and improved endothelial function after 8 weeks of consuming a polyphenol-rich olive oil. [Source]

Air purifiers

  • In 2015 the Journal of the American College of Cardiology published a double-blind study in which air purifiers were tested against sham air purifiers in the door rooms of 35 healthy college students. The air purifiers lead to a 57 percent reduction in PM 2.5 concentration and were significantly associated with a reduced number of inflammatory bio-markers, in addition to reduced blood pressure. [Source]

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