• In 2009 the Nigerian Journal of Medicine published a study in which 35 of 44 patients with halitosis caused by tonsillitis saw complete improvement of halitosis within 8 weeks of having a tonsillectomy. [Source]

Gastrointestinal aspects

  • In 2010 the Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology published a study which found that gastrointestinal pathology was very common in patients with halitosis (56 of 94 patients with halitosis tested positive for gastrointestinal pathology) regardless of dental findings and most patients improved with treatment. [Source]

Tongue scraping and chlorhexidine

  • In 2013 the Indian Society of Periodontology published a crossover trial in which 20 volunteers were assigned to different methods for treating halitosis including tongue scraping, mouthwash and tooth brushing. Mechanical tongue cleaning was effective in reducing bad breath immediately for a short period, whereas mouthwash and mechanical oral hygiene (tooth brushing) reduced bad breath for longer periods – showing best results against morning breath. [Source]

Chlorhexidine and other mouthwash

  • In 2004 the Journal of Clinical Peiodontology published a double-blind, crossover trial which found that 4 types of mouthwashes were all effective in reducing morning breath, with chlorhexidine being the most effective in reducing volatile sulphur compounds –  the cause of bad breath. [Source]

Chlorhexidine and zinc acetate for long lasting effects

  • In 2016 the Journal of Breath Research published a double-blind, cross-over trial in involving 34 individuals with halitosis which showed that CB12 (a mixture of 0.3% zinc acetate and 0.025% chlorhexidine) “showed a clear and durable effect on intra-oral halitosis which lasted at least 12 hours both during the day and overnight.”[Source]
  • In 2007 The Journal of Clinical Dentistry published a double-blind trial in which 10 participants, who each served as his own control, tested eight formulations of oral rinse. Results showed that a combination of zinc (0.3% Zn) and chlorhexidine (0.025% CHX) was the most effective in removing volatile sulfur compounds that cause bad breath. [Source]

Smoking and tongue coating

  • In 2014 the Journal of International Society of Preventative & Community Dentistry published a study including 205 individuals which found that halitosis was present in 78 percent of subjects with an awareness rate of 20 percent. Tongue coating scores and smoking were factors significantly correlated to halitosis. [Source]

Mouth breathing

  • In 2011 Clinics published a study of 55 children between the ages of 3 and 14 years of age which found that there was an association between halitosis and mouth breathing. [Source]

Peppermint mouth rinse

  • In 2013 the Journal of International Preventative & Community Dentistry published a study including 84 students which found that peppermint mouth rinse used 3 times per day for one week was effective in reducing or eliminating halitosis. [Source]

Specialized Probiotics – S. salivarius

  • In 2006 the Journal of Applied Microbiology published a study in which 23 subjects with halitosis used a chlorhexidine mouth rinse followed by either a lozenge containing S. salivarius K12 or a placebo for 3 days. Eighty-five percent of the S. salivarius K12 showed substantial reductions in volatile sulphur compound (VSC) compared to 30 percent in the placebo group. Additionally, in vitro testing showed that S. salivarius K12  suppressed the growth of black-pigmented bacteria in saliva samples. [Source]

Specialized Probiotics – Lactobacillus salivarius

  • In 2016 the Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice published a double-blind study in which 32 periodontitis patients were treated with either subgingival delivery of probiotics and probiotics mouthwash or subgingival delivery of a placebo and placebo mouthwash. After 3 months the probiotic group had significant improvements in plaque, gingival and bleeding indices compared to the control group. The authors of the study note that probiotics can reduce gum pocket depth and oral odor. [Source]
  • In 2010 Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics published a 20 patient study which found that Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 taken in tablet form daily significantly reduced halitosis after 2 weeks while also reducing bleeding in gums. [Source]

Chlorine dioxide

  • In 2008 Trials published a double-blind, cross-over study in which 15 volunteers rinsed with either chlorine dioxide or a placebo mouthwash. Evaluations every 30 minutes showed that chlorine dioxide was effective in significantly lowering concentrations of 3 kinds of volatile sulfur compounds and reducing morning breath for 4 hours. [Source]

Smoking and dry mouth

  • In 2014 the Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine published a study of 277 students which found that smoking, dry mouth and oral hygiene were correlated with halitosis. [Source]

Laser cryptolysis

  • In 2004 Otolarygnology–Head and Neck Surgery published a study in which 53 patients with halitosis caused by chronic fetid tonsillitis received laser cryptolysis. Complete elimination was achieved after 1 session in 28 patients, 2 sessions in 18 patients and 3 sessions in 5 patients. No adverse effects were observed. [Source]
  • In 2006 Photomedicine and Laser Surgery published a study in which 38 patients with halitosis caused by chronic caseous tonsilitis saw significant improvements after 4 sessions of laser cryptolysis by coagulation. [Source]
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