Fluoride

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Toxicity

  • In 2011 Monographs in oral Science published a review which stated that serious toxicity and fatalities due to fluoride toxicity are rare now but overexposure leading to toxic symptoms are not rare – over 30,000 calls are made to poison control centers every year concerning acute fluoride exposure in children, which mainly causes temporary gastrointestinal effects. Dental products are noted as the most common source of overexposure. [Source]

Review of health effects

  • In 2016 Materia Socio Medica published a review based on available data on fluoride safety found and that, though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, topical use is safe and effective in preventing cavities. The most common causes of poisoning are unsupervised ingestion of dental products and over-fluoridated water. [Source]

Water Fluoridation

  • In 2014 The Scientific World Journal published a review which concluded that fluoride has the potential to cause major health problems in humans while only having a modest effect on dental caries prevention (cavity prevention). The authors note that artificial fluoridation of water should be reconsidered globally and that industrial safety measures should be tightened to diminish the unethical release of fluoride into the environment. [Source]

Antioxidant protection against fluoride toxicity

  • In 2011 Toxicology International published an animal study which found that rats exposed to high levels of fluoride (200 ppm) through drinking water showed significant increases in lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced food and water consumption and cardio-toxicity. Administration of selenium and vitamin E counteracted the effects of fluoride exposure by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant activity. [Source]

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