• In 2014 The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology published a 20-patient study which found that roughly 2 cups of kefir per day for 4 weeks increased stool frequency, improved consistency and decreased laxative consumption. [Source]

Probiotics – Bifidobacterium lactis

  • In 2014 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 14 studies totaling 1182 patients which found that Bifidobacterium lactis significantly improved constipation in adults. [Source]
  • In 2013 the World Journal of Gastroenterology published a meta-analysis of 11 clinical trials representing 464 subjects which found that probiotic supplementation, particularly Bifidobacterium lactis, reduced intestinal transit time in individuals with constipation. [Source]

Probiotics – Parkinson’s patients

  • In 2011 Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica published a study which found that regular intake of probiotics significantly reduced bloating and abdominal pain and improved stool consistency in patients with Parkinson’s disease. [Source]

Probiotics for elderly constipation

  • In 2017 Archives of Gerontology and Geriactrics published a meta-analysis which found that 4 placebo-controlled trials suggested that probiotics improved constipation in the elderly by 10 – 40 percent, with Bifidobacterium longum being the most commonly tested strain. [Source]

Probiotics – childhood constipation

  • In 2007 Nutrition Journal published a study of 20 children aged 4-16 years which found that a probiotic supplement containing bifidobacteria along with other probiotic strains increased bowel movements and had an overall positive effects on the symptom of constipation. [Source]
  • In 2014 the International Journal of Pediatrics published a placebo-controlled trial in which 48 children with constipation between the ages of 4 and 12 received either a probiotic supplement or a placebo. After 4 weeks of treatment the probiotic group saw significant improvements in bowel movement frequency and consistency compared to the placebo group. [Source]
  • In 2011 Nutrition Journal published a pilot study in which 20 children between the ages of 3 and 16 years who suffered from constipation saw reduced fecal incontinence episodes, diminished abdominal pain and increased stool frequency after 4 weeks of consuming 108– 1010 CFU Bifidobacterium breve daily. [Source]
  • In 2010 the Iranian Journal of Pediatrics published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 102 children with constipation saw symptom improvements after being treated with synbiotics (a combination of both probiotics and prebiotics) for 4 weeks. [Source]

Probiotics – constipation during pregnancy

  • In 2016 the Iranian Red Cresent Journal published a triple-blind (data-collectors, analyzers and participants) study which found that consumption of both 300 grams/day (10.6 ounces) yogurt enriched with bifidobacterium and lactobacillu as well as 300 grams/day conventional yogurt improved symptoms of constipation during pregnancy in 60 women. [Source]
  • In 2012 Nutrition Journal published a study of 20 pregnant women with constipation who received a bifidobacterium and lactobacillus probiotic supplement. After 4 weeks abdominal pain and straining were reduced and constipation symptoms were improved – bowel movements increased from 3.1 at baseline to 6.7 at week four. [Source]

VSL#3 probiotic

  • In 2015 the Journal of Neurogastroenerology and Motility published a study of 30 patients with constipation which found that probiotic supplement VSL#3, taken twice daily for 2 weeks, improved stool frequency and consistency and reduced abdominal bloating. [Source]

Probiotic-containing yogurt

  • In 2010 The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology published a study in which 76 patients with H. pylori (bacteria which causes ulcers) were treated with antibiotics alone or antibiotics plus a probiotic containing yogurt. The group treated with both antibiotics and probiotic yogurt experienced less constipation and stomatitis (a condition that causes sores inside the mouth). [Source]

Aromatherapy – Constipation in elderly

  • In 2005 Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi published a 10-day study which found that abdominal massage with essential oils rosemary, lemon, and peppermint improved constipation in elderly individuals significantly more than massage alone. [Source]

Acupuncture –  Severe constipation

  • In 2016 Annals of Internal Medicine published a study in which 1075 patients with chronic severe functional constipation received 28 sessions of acupuncture or sham acupuncture over 8 weeks. The acupuncture group saw a significant increase in spontaneous bowel movements while no change was seen in the sham acupuncture group. [Source]
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