- In 2014 Endocrine published a study comparing a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCK) to a standard low-calorie diet in a group of obese individuals. At 2 months the VLCK group lost an average of 30 pounds compared 10.6 pounds in the standard low-calorie group. After one year the VLCK group lost an average of nearly 44 pounds with almost no loss of muscle mass while the standard group lost 15.4 pounds.
Inflammation and immune function
- In 2013 Nutrition & Metabolism published an animal study in which mice fed a high-fat diet saw reductions in inflammatory responses, as well as body weight and fat mass when the calorie content of the diet was cut by 20 percent.
- In 2015 the Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal published an animal study which showed that rats fed a 30-percent-calorie-reduced diet for 8 days showed significant decline in inflammation compared to a control group allowed to eat to satisfaction.
- In 2008 the Journal of Periodontology published an animal study in which 55 monkeys placed on a calorie restricted diet had reduced oral inflammation compared to a control group.
- In 2014 Cancer Prevention Research published an animal study which found that calorie restriction in mice reduced obesity-related inflammation of the mammary glands.
- In 2008 the Journal of Leukocyte Biology published an animal study which showed that a calorie restricted diet had anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects in mice and may have potential in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
- In 2016 Cell Reports published an animal study in which 3 day fasts (that mimicked dieting) improved symptom severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis and completely reversed symptoms in 20 percent of mice with MS.
- In 2004 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published a study of 18 individuals who were on a calorie restricted diet for an average of 6 years and compared them to 18 healthy individuals on a typical American diet. Among other factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (which measures the thickness of the carotid artery and is used in testing to determine the progression of atherosclerosis) was 40 percent lower in the calorie restricted group.
Cardiovascular protection and weight loss
- In 2012 Nutrition Journal published a 10-week clinical trial involving 54 subjects which found that intermittent fasting combined with a calorie restricted diet and liquid meals was effective in reducing body fat, weight, LDL cholesterol, abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk in obese women.