• In 2008 Free Radical Biology and Medicine published an animal study which found that 12 weeks of a blueberry supplemented diet improved the working memory of aged animals. [Source]
  • In 2009 Behavioural Brain Research published an animal study which showed that mice given a wild blueberry extract exhibited significant improvements in learning and memory, which were closely related to higher antioxidant concentrations in the brain. [Source]
  • In 2017 Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism published a study in which 24 older adults received either 30 mL of blueberry concentrate or a placebo for 12 weeks. Cognitive tests and MRI administered before and after treatment showed the blueberry group had increases in cerebral blood flow and brain activity and improvements in working memory compared to the placebo group. [Source]
  • In 2016 Planta Medica published an animal study which showed that 75 days of both wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract improved working and spatial memory in aged mice. [Source]
  • In 2011 the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published a study in which 12 weeks of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice improved learning and word list recall and reduced depressive symptoms in 9 older adults with mild memory decline. [Source]


  • In 2005 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found astaxanthin supplementation provided protection against stroke, hypertension and dementia, as well as improvements in water maze test performance and memory in rats. [Source]
  • In 2016 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research published an animal study which found that astaxanthin supplementation enhanced spatial memory in mice. [Source]
  • In 2016 the European Journal of Pharmacology published a study which found that astaxanthin was able to improve the spatial memory of mice that were also given aluminum – a substance that has detrimental effects to the brain. [Source]


  • In 2012 Evidence-Based and Complementary Medicine published a 2-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study which evaluated the cognitive effect of 400 mg/day and 800 mg/day ginger extract 60 healthy middle-aged women. Compared to the placebo group participants in the ginger groups scored significantly better on a battery of tests that evaluated memory and cognitive function. [Source]
  • In 2014 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications published an animal study which found that 6-shogaol – the active component in ginger – may be useful in reducing memory-impairment in mice with dementia. [Source]

Ginseng – Prevents age related memory decline

  • In 2015 the Journal of Ginseng Research published an animal study which found that 3 months of treatment with red ginseng extract mitigated memory deterioration in aged mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. [Source]

Ginseng – Alzheimer’s

  • In 2013 the Journal of Ginseng Research published a study in which mice with impaired memory and increased beta-amyloid levels in the brain were treated with fermented ginseng extract for 4 months which lead to significant memory function recovery and reduction in beta-amyloid levels. [Source]
  • In 2015 Toxicology and Industry Health published a study which showed that panax ginseng root was as effective as the Alzheimer’s drug, memantine hydrochloride in improving memory in memory-impaired rats. [Source]


  • In 2002 Physiology and Behavior published a double-blind, crossover study which compared ginkgo, ginseng, a ginkgo/ginseng combination supplement and a placebo in 20 participants. The results supported previous findings, with all three supplements improving memory performance compared to a placebo. [Source]
  • In 2010 Psychopharmacology published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial in which 32 subjects received 3 doses of an American ginseng based supplement. Following administration the ginseng group displayed significant improvements in working memory. [Source]
  • In 2000 Psychopharmacology published a double-blind, 14-week study in which 256 middle-aged participants received either a supplement containing both ginkgo biloba and panax ginseng or a placebo. The results showed that the ginkgo/ginseng supplement improved memory by an average 7.5 percent, with benefits to both long-term and working memory. [Source]
  • In 2015 Human Psychopharmacology published a double-blind, crossover study in which 52 healthy volunteers between the ages of 40 and 60 years old received either 200 mg of an American ginseng-based extract or a placebo. Compared to the placebo, the ginseng supplement improved cognitive performance and working memory, measured at 3 hours after consumption. [Source]
  • In 2016 the Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis published an animal study which showed that ginseng improved memory in rats through the regulation of various essential compounds including amino acids and neurotransmitters. [Source]

Ginseng – Protection against alcohol induced memory dysfunction

  • In 2005 Archives of Pharmacal Research published an animal study which showed that Panax ginseng extract significantly reversed alcohol-induced memory dysfunction in mice. [Source]


  • In 2003 Proceedings, Biological Sciences published a 45-subject, double-blind, cross-over study which found that, compared to a placebo, 6 weeks of creatine supplementation in young, adult vegetarians had a significant positive effect in working memory and intelligence. [Source]

Creatine – Improved memory in vegetarians

  • In 2011 The British Journal of Nutrition published a double-blind study in which 128 females consumed either 20 grams of creatine or a placebo for 5 days. Results showed that vegetarians saw improvements in memory, while no change was seen in meat eaters. [Source]


  • In 2016 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine published a double-blind trial in which 60 medical students received either 150 mg Bacopa monnieri or a placebo for 6 weeks. At the end of the study period the bacopa group scored higher on tests relating to cognitive function and memory. [Source]
  • In 2012 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine published a study in which 60 healthy elderly subjects received either 600 mg bacopa or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group the bacopa group showed faster memory response times. [Source]
  • In 2012 the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine published a review of 6 studies which showed that bacopa improved performance on 9 of 17 tests related to memory recall. [Source]
  • In 2008 Phytotherapy Research published a study in which 62 patients were given either a placebo or 300 mg/day bacopa for 90 days. At the end of the study cognitive tests showed that, compared to a placebo, the bacopa group saw significant improvement in working memory and visual information processing. [Source]
  • In 2002 Neuropsychopharmacology published a double-blind study of 76 subjects which found that, compared to a placebo, treatment with Bacopa monnieri for 3 months was able to significantly increase the ability of adults to retain new information. [Source]
  • In 2010 the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine published a 12-week, double-blind study in which 81 subjects over the age of 55 received either 300 mg/day bacopa or a placebo. The bacopa group saw significant improvements in verbal learning, memory and ability to recall information quickly when compared to individuals in a placebo group. [Source]

Bacopa – Counteracts mild memory impairment

  • In 2014 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment published a trial in which 104 older adults with mild cognitive impairment were given a supplement containing Bacopa monnieri, phosphatidylserine and vitamin E for 60 days. Cognitive test scores at the end of the study improved significantly, with memory-related tasks improving the most. Sixty-two percent of the subjects perceived the efficacy of the supplement as excellent or good. [Source]


  • In 2013 Neuropharmacology published a double-blind study in which 32 subjects received 200 mg of modafinil and 32 subjects received a placebo. Compared to the placebo group, the modafinil group saw improvements in spatial working memory, planning and decision-making at the most difficult levels. [Source]
  • In 2015 Physiology & Behavior published an animal study which found that rats performed maze tests more quickly when receiving modafinil compared to a control group. [Source]


  • In 2014 the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease published an animal study which showed that long-term resveratrol supplementation significantly prevented memory loss in an Alzheimer’s mouse model, while also reducing beta-amyloid concentrations. [Source]
  • In 2016 Oncotarget published an animal study in which resveratrol was able to reverse memory and learning impairment in mice by preventing neuroinflammation and increasing brain derived neutropic factor – an important protein for brain function. [Source]
  • In 2015 Age published an animal study which found that resveratrol treatment prevented decline of seratonin, dopamine and noradrenaline levels in rats which helped restore working memory. [Source]
  • In 2016 Neurobiology of Learning and Memory published an animal study which found that resveratrol reversed age-related learning deficits and memory impairment in rats, through its anti-inflammatory properties. [Source]
  • In 2014 The Journal of Neuroscience published a study in which 23 overweight, but otherwise healthy adults supplemented 200 mg/day resveratrol for 26 weeks. Compared to 23 adults who received a placebo, the resveratrol group had improved memory performance and significant increases in hippocampal functional connectivity. [Source]
  • In 2015 Scientific Reports published an animal study which found that resveratrol improved memory, learning ability, neuron production and mood function in late-middle aged rats, whereas rats in an age-matched control group had impairments in these areas. [Source]
  • In 2009 the European Journal of Pharmacology published an animal study which showed that 30 days of treatment with resveratrol prevented memory impairment in diabetic rats. [Source]
  • In 2012 Diabetes published an animal study in which mice were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with resveratrol for 20 weeks. Compared to mice in the high-fat-only group, resveratrol-treated mice showed reductions in fatty liver disease, brain inflammation and insulin resistance and reduced memory deficits. [Source]

Artificial food dyes

  • In 2011 the Journal of Food Science published a study to evaluate the effects of tartrazine on learning and memory in an animal model. Rats were administered various doses of tartazine for a 30 day period and were evaluated through several memory tests. The rats performed more poorly on all tests after treatment with tartrazine and showed decreased antioxidant levels in the brain. [Source]


  • In 2014 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published a review of 12 studies measuring the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. Studies involved reported positive effects on memory, attention, processing speed and executive function. [Source]
  • In 2011 Psychiatry Research published a study in which MRI brain scans were obtained from 16 healthy individuals before and after they underwent an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction training program. Compared to baseline MRI scans and to a control group of 17 individuals, the post-meditation brain scans showed increases in neural activity in multiple regions of the brain involved in learning, memory and emotion-regulation. [Source]


  • In 2015 Nutritional Nueroscience published an animal study in which rats close to end-of-life were fed a diet comprised of 2 percent acai for 8 weeks and tested for memory function in a water maze. Compared to a control group, the acai group demonstrated better working memory. Researchers concluded that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of acai may help protect memory during aging. [Source]


  • In 2013 Age published an animal study in which found that aged rats fed a diet supplemented with coffee performed better in memory and motor tasks, compared to a control group. A subsequent study showed that caffeine alone did not have the same effect, implying that the nueroprotective effects of coffee are not due to caffeine alone, but additional bioactive compounds in coffee. [Source]


  • In 2009 Physiology and Behavior published an animal study which showed that rats fed a honey supplemented diet over a 1-year period showed significantly less anxiety and had improved spatial memory when compared to rats fed a sugar (sucrose) supplemented diet. [Source]


  • In 2013 the European Journal of Nutrition published a study in which 33 individuals who completed heavy endurance exercise were evaluated on post-exercise cognitive tests. An association was seen between greater water intake (before and during the exercise period) and higher cognitive scores and improved short-term memory. [Source]


  • In 2013 The American Journal of Chinese Medicine published an animal study which found that curcumin – the active component of turmeric – improved spatial memory in rats induced with Alzheimer’s disease. [Source]


  • In 2007 Phytoherapy Research published an animal study in which mice that were predisposed to develop Alzheimer’s disease were fed aged garlic extract. The result was a decrease in memory deterioration which may suggest a potential role of aged garlic extract in preventing the progression Alzheimer’s disease. [Source]

Royal Jelly

  • In 2012 Advanced Biomedical Research published an animal study in which rats that were induced with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease received food containing royal jelly or regular food. The royal jelly group performed better in spatial learning and memory tests, suggesting the potential neuroprotective role of royal jelly may be useful in treating Alzheimer’s. [Source]


  • In 2015 Nutrients published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 40 active males which found that a vitamin and mineral complex with guarana taken before moderate-intensity exercise improved cognition speed and working memory post exercise, when compared with a placebo. [Source]
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