Cardiovascular Disease


  • In 2016 Scientific Reports published a meta-analysis including 22 clinical trials totaling 1,251 subjects which showed that berry consumption significantly lowered LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, body mass index, A1C and tumor necrosis factor-α (a major pro-inflammatory cytokine).
  • In 2016 Antioxidants published a double-blind study in which 107 adults experiencing mild cognitive impairment were assigned to a placebo group or given the equivalent of 2 cups of fresh berries in powdered form daily for 180 days. Results showed that berries lowered reduced cardiovascular risk factors in men, but not in women.

Resveratrol – Cardiovascular protection

  • In 2012 Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation published a double-blind study in which 40 patients who had suffered a previous heart attack were given either 10 mg/day resveratrol or a placebo for 3 months. The resveratrol-treated group had a significant decrease in LDL cholesterol and protection against platelet aggregation (blood clot formation) – which was seen in the placebo group.
  • In 2014 the International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology published an animal study which showed that resveratrol administration significantly reversed the harmful effects of an atherogenic diet in rats, while improving antioxidant status.


  • In 2010 Anticancer Research published an animal study which found that 8 weeks of astaxanthin supplementation was able to provide a cardio-protective effect in mice.


  • In 2008 The Scientific World Journal published a study in which 55 overweight or obese subjects received either 70 grams of honey or sucrose for 30 days. The results showed that the honey group had a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors including reduced bodyweight, bodyfat, triglycerides, LCL cholesterol, C-reactive protein (inflammatory marker) and increased HDL cholesterol.


  • In 2014 the Journal of Medicinal Food published in animal study which showed that red ginseng significantly reduced cardiac dysfunction in male porcine through the reduction of oxidative stress.
  • In 2011 the Journal of Ginseng Research published an animal study which showed that ginseng root combined with hawthorn reduced high cholesterol and help prevent cardiovascular disease in rats.

Trans fat

  • In 2009 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of prospective studies which indicated that consumption of partially hydrogenated oils can significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • In 2010 the Journal of the American Dietetic Association published a meta-analysis which found that, for every 2 percent of calories (in the form of carbohydrates or non-trans fatty acids) that are replaced with trans fats, the risk of heart attack or coronary death increases between 20 and 32 percent.

Green coffee

  • In 2014 Biomed Research International published a 2-week pilot study which compared the effects of green coffee to black coffee in 20 healthy subjects. The results showed that green coffee reduced systolic blood pressure and abdominal fat more than black coffee.


  • In 2015 the Journal of Internal Medicine published a prospective study based on 2315 middle-aged men which found that, compared to one sauna bathing session per week, men who used a sauna 4 to 7 times per week had a 63 percent lower risk for sudden cardiac death. The researchers concluded that greater frequency of sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality.

Low-carb diets

  • In 2013 Metabolism published a 12-week study which measured the effects of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HFLC) on weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in obese subjects. Compared to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (HCLF) the HFLC diet group had greater increases in HDL (good) cholesterol and greater decreases in triglycerides and systemic inflammation. Both diets lead to similar changes in body weight and composition.
  • In 2014 Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases published an analysis of studies which examined the effects of low-carbohydrate diets vs low-fat diets between 1966 and 2013. The researchers concluded that recent trials show that low-carbohydrate diets decrease body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factors.
  • In 2010 the Annals of Internal Medicine published a study which evaluated the effects of a 2-year period on a low-carbohydrate diet vs a low-fat diet on 307 participants. The results showed that the low-carbohydrate group had greater improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, with no difference in weight loss between the groups.
  • In 2006 Nutrition and Metabolism published a study which tested the effects of a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs two low-saturated-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on 83 subjects. The data showed that the very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar weight loss to the low saturated fat diets but was more effective in improving blood lipids and insulin concentrations. The authors note that very-low-carbohydrate diet may be effective in the short-term management of insulin resistance.


  • In 2016 the Journal of the American College of Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 7 studies which found that consumption of up to 1 egg per day was associated with a reduced risk of stroke. The data also showed no association between egg consumption and increased or decreased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • In 2013 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 16 studies which showed that egg consumption is not associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular mortality among the general population – however, the data also showed that egg consumption may be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes among the general population and an increased cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients.
  • In 2006 Medical Science Monitor published a study representing 9,734 adults which showed no difference in stroke or cardiovascular risk between those who consumed greater than 6 eggs per week compared to those who consumed none or less than one egg per week.
  • In 2014 ESPEN published a study based on data from 1848 participants which showed no association between coronary artery calcium – a predictor of heart disease – and egg consumption.

Eggs – Cardiovascular risk factors for diabetics

  • In 2015 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a 3-month study in which 140 obese participants with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were assigned to either a high-egg or low-egg diet where they consumed either 2 eggs per day, 6 days out of the week (12 eggs total per week) or less than 2 eggs per week. At the end of the study there were no differences in cholesterol profiles between the groups, however the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety, post-breakfast.

Calorie restriction – Cardiovascular protection and weight loss

  • In 2012 Nutrition Journal published a 10-week clinical trial involving 54 subjects which found that intermittent fasting combined with a calorie restricted diet and liquid meals was effective in reducing body fat, weight, LDL cholesterol, abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk in obese women.

Vitamin C

  • In 2003 the Journal of the American College of Cardiology published a study based on dietary and supplementation surveys completed by 85,118 female nurses. After 16 years of follow-up it was determined that vitamin C supplementation was associated with reduced risk for coronary heart disease.

Air purifiers

  • In 2015 the Journal of the American College of Cardiology published a double-blind study in which air purifiers were tested against sham air purifiers in the door rooms of 35 healthy college students. The air purifiers lead to a 57 percent reduction in PM 2.5 concentration and were significantly associated with reduced a number of inflammatory bio-markers, in addition to reduced blood pressure.

Sea buckthorn oil

  • In 2011 the International Journal of Toxicology published an animal study which found that the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of seabuckthorn oil protected against chemically induced cardio-toxicity in rats.

Red Wine

  • In 2003 the International Journal of Molecular Medicine published an animal study which found that red wine was able to reduce the negative effects of a high cholesterol diet fed to rabbits by preventing a decline in endothelial cell function and increasing nitric oxide levels.
  • In 2002 the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study which recorded alcohol intake history of 350 obese patients set for weight loss surgery. The data showed that red wine consumers had lower homocysteine (a non-protein amino acid correlated with the occurrence of blood clots, heart attacks and stroke) concentrations.


  • In 2008 Biomedical and Environmental Sciences published a study which found that 32 men with high cholesterol saw significant improvements in HDL and LDL cholesterol as well as antioxidant status after consuming 150 mL/day kale juice for 12 weeks.


  • In 2013 the Public Library of Science published a meta-analysis of 6 studies involving data from 595,086 adults and 29,162 deaths which showed that individuals who sat 10 hours per day had an estimated 34 percent higher mortality risk. The researchers also found that engaging in moderate-to-vigorous exercise reduced this risk.
  • In 2009 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise published a study which examined the sitting time and mortality rates in a sample of 17,013 Canadians. The data showed that more time spent sitting was associated with higher rates of death from heart disease and all causes, independent of physical activity.
  • In 2015 Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise published a prospective study which followed 154,614 older adults and found that, for less active individuals, replacing one hour of sitting with either exercise or non-exercise activities such as walking, gardening, or household chores could lower both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates.
  • In 2012 Archives of Internal Medicine published a study based on questionnaire data from 222,497 individuals 45 years or older which showed that mortality rates increased sharply when sitting time was 11 hours or more per day.
  • In 2010 the American Journal of Epidemiology published a prospective study based on questionnaire data from 53,440 men and 69,776 women who were disease free at enrollment which showed that after a 14-year follow-up individuals who sat 6 or more hours per day had a 48 and 94 percent increased mortality risk, respectively, when compared with those with the least sitting time and most physical activity.
  • In 2010 the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a meta-analysis of 43 papers which examined the relationship between cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, all-cause mortality and occupational sitting. The evidence linking cancer and occupational sitting was limited while the majority of studies found that occupational sitting was linked to a higher risk of diabetes and mortality.
  • In 2014 the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity published a study based on 71,363 men and women which found that sitting 10 or more hours per day coupled with being generally inactive was associated with an 80 percent higher risk of heart attack and a 129 percent higher risk for all-cause mortality when compared to sitting less than 6 hours per day and being physically active.


  • In 2014 the Journal of the American College of Cardiology published a 2-year, 420-patient placebo-controlled trial which found that, for patients with chronic heart failure, 100 mg CoQ10 taken 3 times daily in addition to standard therapy reduced symptoms and major adverse cardiovascular events.
  • In 2013 the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of select studies which found that CoQ10 may improve ejection fraction – an important measurement used to determine the amount of blood being pumped out of the heart – and reduce risk of heart attack in patients with congestive heart failure.
  • In 2005 Biofactors published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving 21 patients which found that 4 weeks of CoQ10 supplementation improved the heart’s efficiency in circulating blood throughout the body in patients with chronic heart failure.
  • In 2014 ARYA Atherosclerosis published a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 62 patients which found that the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin (brand name Lipitor) combined with 100 mg CoQ10 twice daily was significantly more effective in improving important heart-health measurements compared to atorvastatin combined with a placebo.


  • In 2014 the American Journal of Epidemiology published a meta-analysis of 21 studies including 997,464 participants which found that 4 cups of coffee per day was associated with a 16 percent reduced risk of all-cause mortality and 3 cups per day was associated with a 21 percent reduction in cardiovascular mortality.

Cruciferous vegetables

  • In 2011 The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a meta-analysis of 2 population based studies involving 134,796 adults which found that both fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with total mortality (primarily related to cardiovascular disease) in men and women. Cruciferous vegetables in particular reduced mortality in a dose-dependent pattern.


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