- In 2011 Alternative Medicine Review published a review which noted that astaxanthin goes beyond relieving oxidative stress and inflammation and shows promise for slowing general age-related functional decline.
- In 2013 the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry published a trial which found that fruit flies that consumed an astaxanthin-rich green algea had a significant increase in lifespan.
- A 2015 Marine Drugs published a review which noted that astaxanthin has shown effectiveness in fighting tumors in both in vitro and in vivo cancer models. According to the researchers, astaxanthin exerts its anti-cancer effects through various molecules and pathways and shows great promise as a chemotherapeutic agent.
- In 2012 Acta Biochimica Polonica published an open-label trial where 6 mg/day oral astaxanthin supplementation combined with 2 mL/day topical astaxanthin for 8 weeks decreased wrinkles and age spots and improved skin texture, elasticity and moisture content in 30 women.
- In 2012 Acta Biochimica Polonica published a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 6 weeks supplementation with 6 mg/day astaxanthin improved crow’s feet, wrinkles, skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss (moisture loss though the skin) in 36 healthy males.
- In 2010 the Journal of Dermatological Science published an in vitro study which showed that astaxanthin could provide a significant protection against the effects of sun damaged skin – specifically sagging and wrinkles.
- In 2014 in the Journal of Medicinal Food published a placebo-controlled study involving 44 subjects which found that 12 weeks supplementation with 2 mg/day astaxanthin combined with 3 g/day collagen hydrolysate improved facial elasticity and skin barrier integrity in sun-damaged facial skin.
Immunity During Exercise
- In 2015 Evidence-Based and Complementary Alternative Medicine published a study in which 40 trained soccer players were given 4 mg/day astaxanthin for 90 days. Results showed that astaxanthin improved the body’s immune response by increasing the body’s antibody activity during exercise – a time when the body undergoes increased oxidative stress and inflammation.
- In 2012 The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 32 elite young soccer players which found that 90 days of astaxanthin supplementation was able to help reduce the rise in free radicals that occurs during intense training sessions.
- In 2010 Nutrition and Metabolism published a double-blind clinical trial involving 14 healthy young females which found that 8 weeks of dietary astaxanthin increased the activity of a specific type of white blood cell – natural killer cells – and lead to decreased DNA damage and enhanced immune response.
- In 2010 the European Journal of Nutrition published an in vitro trial which found that astaxanthin was able to increase the effectiveness of neutrophils – a type of white blood cell responsible for protecting the body against disease and illness.
Colorectal Cancer Prevention
- In 2014 BMC Gastroenterology published an animal study which found that mice exposed to a toxic chemical (azoxymethane) experienced protection against colon cancer when their diet was supplemented with astaxanthin for 8 weeks.
- In 2016 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research published an animal study which found that astaxanthin supplementation enhanced spatial memory in mice.
- In 2016 the European Journal of Pharmacology published a study which found that astaxanthin was able to improve the spatial memory of mice that were also given aluminum – a substance that has detrimental effects to the brain.
Reduced High Blood Pressure
- In 2005 Biological and Pharmceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found that hypertensive mice treated with astaxanthin for 14 days had a significant reduction in blood pressure.
- In 2000 the Journal of Agricultaural and Food Chemistry published a study which tested the antioxidant capacity of seven different substances known to possess powerful antioxidant capabilities. Among them were lutein, beta-carotene, and lycopene. Astaxanthin proved to possess the highest level of antioxidant capacity.
- In 2007 the International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research published a placebo-controlled study which found that 3 months of 8 mg/day astaxanthin supplementation raised blood levels of astaxanthin and reduced free radical activity in healthy men. The authors concluded that absorption of astaxanthin in capsule form is adequate.
- In 2015 Physiology and Behavior published an animal study which found that astaxanthin supplementation was able to reduce maze-test times and improve cognitive function in streptozotocin (chemotherapy drug) treated mice by protecting nerve cells against inflammation.
Reductions in bad (LDL) cholesterol
- In 2011 Plant Foods for Human Nutrition published a double-blind study in which 27 overweight subjects were assigned to a placebo or astaxanthin supplementation for 12 weeks. Results showed that astaxanthin lead to significant increases in total antioxidant capacity and decreases in oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease markers and LDL cholesterol when compared to a placebo.
Protection from UV rays
- In 2014 Experimental Dermatology published an in vitro study which concluded that astaxathin could protect against the inflammation caused by ultra violet rays.
- In 2010 Anticancer Research published an animal study which found that 8 weeks of astaxanthin supplementation was able to provide a cardio-protective effect in mice.
Increased Fat Loss During Exercise
- In 2006 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found that mice given an astaxanthin supplement had increased swimming endurance compared to a control group, likely due to an increase in the use of body fat as an energy source.
Protection Against Hypertension and Stroke
- In 2005 Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin published an animal study which found astaxanthin supplementation provided protection against stroke, hypertension and dementia, as well as improvements in water maze test performance and memory in rats.
Protection for Overweight and Obese Adults
- In 2011 Phototherapy Research published a double-blind, study which found that 3 weeks supplementation with 5 mg/day astaxanthin increased total antioxidant capacity by 121 percent while significantly lowering levels of damaging free radicals in 23 overweight adults. Twenty mg/day astaxanthin only provided similar results.
Protection Against Dementia
- In 2011 the British Journal of Nutrition published a double-blind, placebo-controlled study which found that 12 weeks of astaxanthin supplementation (6 or 12 mg/d) in 30 middle aged and senior subjects was able to reduce levels of phospholipid hydroperoxides – a substance that accumulates abnormally in dementia patients.
Lowers Triglycerides and Increases Good Cholesterol (HDL)
- In 2010 Atherosclerosis published a placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 61 subjects were given doses of 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg/day astaxanthin for 12 weeks. Results showed that 12 and 18 mg doses significantly reduced triglycerides and 6 and 12 mg doses significantly increased HDL cholesterol.
Improved Exercise Endurance
- In 2014 Nutrients published an animal study which found that astaxathin administration was able to increase levels of a powerful antioxidant – glutathione – during exercise, which limited oxidation stress and delayed exhaustion time in rats by 29 percent in a swimming test.
Gastric Cancer Prevention
- In 2016 Gut Liver published an in vitro study which found that astaxanthin interrupts the cell cycle progression of gastric cancer cells.
- In 2013 The Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition published a study involving 35 patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery which found that 6 mg astaxanthin for 2 weeks was able to provide a significant free radical scavenging effect in the aqueous humor – the clear fluid between the lens and cornea of the eye. The authors of the study concluded that astaxanthin may help prevent stress-related eye disease.
Best When Taken with Fats
- In 2003 the European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published a study which suggested that the bioavailability of astaxanthin is highest when consumed with fats.
- In 2014 International Immunopharmocology published an in vitro study which found that astaxanthin reduced the expression of substances related to the onset of osteoarthritis – leading the authors to conclude that astaxanthin may be useful in treating osteoarthritis.